Pythonista already includes Sympy by default (for both Python 2 and 3), so you usually don't need to install it yourself. The version that comes with Pythonista is 0.7.4.1, which is a bit old, so if you need features or fixes from newer versions, you do need to install the current version manually.
As for installing Sympy (and other pure Python libraries) manually, you cannot use the setup.py or other installation script that comes with the library. These setup scripts assume that you're using a normal Python installation on a normal system, and don't work in Pythonista's environment. Instead, you should try Stash's pip command - it can install most pure Python packages from PyPI without any extra work.
If that doesn't work for some reason, you need to manually download the source code (which you probably did already to get the install script) and move/copy the package folder or module file into site-packages. In the case of Sympy, that is the sympy folder in the source .tar.gz.