• mikael

    @AlexHevc, oh, the title, yes, sorry...

    Windows has an iCloud syncing client. Does it see the Pythonista iCloud folder? If yes, you could just edit files in that folder on Windows, and then run on an iOS device.

    posted in Pythonista read more
  • mikael

    @Slimebot32, you are missing self both in the method definition and in the way you are calling it. Look at the other methods for reference.

    posted in Pythonista read more
  • mikael

    @AlexHevc, not sure if your message meant that you use Windows? If you used a Mac, then you could use multipeer connectivity for dropping the files to the phone.

    posted in Pythonista read more
  • mikael

    @AlexHevc, sorry, not my code, and not something I have personally needed or used. But if you can make it work like that, I would imagine there would be bits and pieces that could be turned to your purpose.

    posted in Pythonista read more
  • mikael

    @AlexHevc, would something like the WebIDE work for you?

    posted in Pythonista read more
  • mikael

    Convenient view alignment

    Enabled views have an align attribute that supports aligning matching attributes of views. For example, aligning the heights of two views:


    Alignment example

    Using align is especially convenient when you need to align several views at once:

      view_a.align.center_x(view_b, view_c)

    In addition to all the regular constraint attributes like height and center_x in the examples above, align supports aligning the composite attributes size and center.

    Convenient view placement within superview

    Creating individual constraints can quickly become a bit of a bore. Thus the wrapper includes a number of methods for "docking" views.

    For example, the following places constraints to the top and both sides, leaving height still undefined:


    Dock top example

    Following docking methods are available:

    • all, center, horizontal, vertical, horizontal_between, vertical_between, top, bottom, leading, trailing, top_leading, top_trailing, bottom_leading, bottom_trailing

    The most specialized of these are the _between methods, which dock the view to the sides in one direction, and between the two given views in another. Here's an example:

      search_button, done_button)

    Dock between example

    By default, dock methods leave a margin between the edges of the superview and the view. This can be adjusted with the fit parameter:

    • Dock.MARGIN (the default) - standard margin
    • Dock.TIGHT - no margin
    • Dock.SAFE - align to the safe area insets, if applicable

    You can also change the default by setting the Dock.default_fit parameter, e.g.:

    Dock.default_fit = Dock TIGHT

    Many dock methods support share and constant parameters.

    share parameter can be used to define how much of the superview's area the view should take:


    This is only exact if you use TIGHT fit, as there is no way to dynamically account for the space taken by margins.

    constant parameter can be used to adjust the margins manually, although I feel that this is probably bad layout design.

    posted in Pythonista read more
  • mikael

    @JonB, @shinyformica, @cvp, thank you for the encouragement. Even though this was independently initiated, has different code and API, @zrzka has ”prior art” in the form of his proof of concept code from a while back.

    posted in Pythonista read more
  • mikael

    Python wrapper for Apple iOS UI view layout constraints, available as anchor.py on GitHub. Run the file to see a sample constraint-driven layout.


    Constraints are used to determine how views are laid out in your UI. They are an alternative to the x, y, frame method used in Pythonista by default.

    Constraints are defined as equations, which are dynamically evaluated as the dimensions or views of your UI change. For example, the following constraint places the Cancel button always beside the Done button:

    cancel_button.at.trailing == done_button.at.leading_padding

    Trailing example image

    (Here, 'trailing' and 'leading' are same as 'right' and 'left', but automatically reversed if your device is set for a right-to-left language.)

    Constraints can use the following attributes:

    • left, right, top, bottom, width, height
    • leading, trailing
    • center_x, center_y
    • last_baseline, first_baseline
    • left_margin, right_margin, top_margin, bottom_margin, leading_margin, trailing_margin
      • Use these when you want to leave a standard margin between the view and the edge of its superview (inside margin).
    • left_padding, right_padding, top_padding, bottom_padding, leading_padding, trailing_padding
      • Use these when you want to leave a standard margin between the view and the view next to it (outside margin).

    Why would I need them?

    It depends on your style and preferences regarding building UIs.

    You can create pretty much all the same layouts and achieve the same level of dynamic behavior just using Pythonista's regular frame, flex attribute and the layout method.

    The reason to consider constraints is that they, and the convenience methods in this wrapper, provide perhaps a more human way of expressing the desired layout. You can use one-liners for "keep this view below that other view, no matter what happens", or "this view takes over the top half of the screen, with margins", without fiddling with pixel calculations or creating several ui.Views just for the layout.

    Anatomy of a constraint

    Constraints have this syntax:

    target_view.at.attribute == source_view.at.attribute * multiplier + constant


    • target view is now constrained and unaffected by setting x, y, frame or center - but you can read these values if you need to know the absolute shape and position of a view. source view is unaffected and remains in the 'frame mode', until used on the left side of constraint.
    • Relationship can be ==, <= or >= (but nothing else).
    • You can also / a multiplier or - a constant, and have several multipliers and constants, but they will only be combined per type (i.e. * 6 + 1 / 3 - 5 is the same as * 2 - 4).
    • Multiplier can be zero or the source left out of the equation, but only if the target attribute is a size attribute, e.g.
      • target.at.height == 100
    • Target and source attributes cannot mix:
      • size and position attributes
      • vertical and horizontal position attributes
      • absolute and relative position attributes (e.g. leading and left)

    These are all Apple restrictions, and the wrapper checks for them to avoid an ObjC exception and a Pythonista crash. Please let me know if you find other crashing combos.

    Enabling constraints

    Pythonista UI views do not natively support constraints, of course, so we need to enable them.

    The explicit option is to call enable on the UI view, maybe at view creation. For example:

    import anchor, ui
    label = anchor.enable(ui.Label(alignment=ui.ALIGN_CENTER))
    label.at.width == 100

    An alternative is to use already-enabled versions of every Pythonista UI view class, defined in anchor.py, so you can save a little typing by importing it like this:

    from ui import *
    from anchor import *
    label = Label(alignment=ALIGN_CENTER)
    label.at.width == 100

    Ambiguous constraints

    When you constrain a view, you have to unambiguously constrain both its position and size. If you miss something, the view usually is not visible at all. To debug constraints, you can either check an individual view for problems with:


    Or check your whole view hierarchy by:


    This will print out the whole hierarchy, and return any ambiguous views as a list.

    To be continued

    posted in Pythonista read more
  • mikael

    @TPO, is this a general question or did you have a specific app in mind? There was this method to find the launch URL of ”any” app, wonder if it still works.

    posted in Pythonista read more
  • mikael

    @FarmerPaco, if it helps, this is not exactly scp, but does the same thing:

    #coding: utf-8
    import paramiko
    s = paramiko.SSHClient()
    s.connect("<ip>", port, username='...', password='...', timeout=4)
    sftp = s.open_sftp()
    sftp.mkdir(remote_dir) # if needed
    sftp.put(local_path, remote_path)

    posted in Pythonista read more

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